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HENRI IV FRANCE - ENGLAND


In order to make it clear as to who I am talking about, I will refer to the Kings of France as Henri and the Kings of England as Henry. In reality, Henri IV of France signed his name as 'Henry', but his coins bore the legend 'Henri IIII'.

It is also important to remember that the country we refer to as France today, geographically encompasses many past Kingdoms including the Kingdom referred to as France in past times. In other words the France referred to on this page is just a part of present day France.


After Henri I (1006-1060), France was not to have another King of that name until 1547 when Henri II ascended the throne.

After the Norman conquest of Saxon England at the Battle of Hastings, in 1066 and subsequently, the affairs of England and France became much more closely linked, with Kings of England who also ruled over parts of what would today be considered France. William the Conqueror's son Henry was born in England in 1068 and ruled from 1100 until 1135 as Henry I of England.

It was not unusual for an English King to actually spend more time in France than he did in England. For example perhaps England's most legendary King, Richard I (born 1157), also known as Richard the Lionheart, spent most of his youth in Poitiers and then battling with the barons of Aquitaine. He was eventually crowned at Westminster in 1189 after the death of his father Henry II. Within months he had set off for the crusades and didn't return to England until 1194. Then he stayed for only a few weeks before returning to Normandy to win back territory he had lost during his absence. He died in Limousin of a fatal wound in 1199.

Henry IV of England was born in 1366 and became King of England and Aquitaine in 1399. His main success in life seems to have been fathering Henry V of England, by his first wife, Mary of Bohun. Coincidentally his second wife was Joan of Navarre, who he married in 1403. Henry IV died in 1413.

Henry V took just two years to make his mark, by winning the spectacular  victory at Agincourt. He then started adding more French territories to his Kingdom. In 1420 he married Catherine, daughter of King Charles VI of France, who bore one son before Henry V died in 1422.

Henry VI was nine months old when he became King. He was crowned in 1429 as King of England, while in the same year his uncle Charles VII was crowned at Rouen, as King of France. Henry VI was also crowned King of France, at Saint Denis in Paris on the 2nd of December 1431, the same year in which Joan of arc was burned at the stake. However French history sources show Charles VII (born1403 - died 1461) as King during this time. Henry VI having eventually lost all the territories his father had won in France, was murdered in the Tower of London on 21st May 1471.

Henry VIII (born 1491) became King of England in 1509. He was mainly famous for having six wives and breaking away from the Catholic church in Rome. Henry's sister Margaret married James IV of Scotland. Their son James V of Scotland married Marie of Guise and had a daughter, Mary Queen of Scots. Henry himself produced three future monarchs, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

Henry VIII Died in 1547, coinciding with the accession of Henri II in France. Edward VI had a short reign and was succeeded by his sister Mary I who married Philip II of Spain. Mary started to move the church back towards Rome, which was reversed when she died and was in turn succeeded by her sister Elizabeth I.

Henri II of France had four sons with Catherine de Medici. The first of these became Francois II of France on Henri's death. He married Mary Queen of Scots. However he died early. Eventually in 1587, Mary queen of Scots was executed for allegedly plotting to have Elizabeth I murdered in an attempt to turn England back towards the Catholic religion.

When Elizabeth I died childless in 1603, the crown passed to James I of England (James VI) of Scotland, a great grandchild of Henry VIII's sister, Margaret. James I married Anne of Denmark and their second son was the future King, Charles I.

A picture of Henrietta Maria Queen of England, wife of King Charles I of England, daughter of Henri IV of France and Maria de Medici

Henrietta Maria Queen of England

Charles I of England married Henrietta Maria of France, daughter of Henri IV of France and Marie de Medici. Although Charles I was executed by order of parliament on the 30th of January 1649, two of their sons subsequently became Kings of England. In 1660 two years after the death of Oliver Cromwell, Charles II was restored to the throne of England. His brother James II, subsequently succeeded him.

So although he didn't know it, Henri III of Navarre / Henri IV of France, became the grandfather of two Kings of England as well as of Louis XIV of France.


 


A picture of a red shield with a linked chain motif, representing the kingdom of Navarre

A picture of a red shield with a linked chain motif, representing the kingdom of Navarre

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A picture of a blue shield with 3 yellow Fluer de lis, representing the Kingdom of France